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Original Article

PARENTS CHILD RELATIONSHIP AS PREDICTOR OF LOCUS OF CONTROL IN ADOLESCENTS

Gupta Kumar Ram1, Aashima Jasoria, 2 Shailendra Singh,3 Kanchan Gautam4

1,2 PhD Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Univeristy of Rajasthan, Jaipur

3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Govt. GD Girls college, Alwar, Rajasthan

4Psychologist, Sampurnanagar, Uttar Pradesh

 

Abstract

Background:Adolescence is a transition phase in our life during which important physical, psychological changes occurs. The transition phase into adulthood can bring moments of insecurity, helplessness, uselessness, isolation and psycho-somatic problems such as anxiety, tensions, frustrations and emotional upsets in day to day life parenting style and its impact the development differently on the adolescents. It is necessary for the parents to provide best possible environment at home, to create a conducive, fostering and supportive experiences for smooth transition from adolescence into adulthood.

Aim: The present study was intended to determine whether the parent child relationship would predict locus of control among school going students.

Methodology: Fifty participants with ages between 16 and 17 years (group mean age ± S.D., 16.25 ± 0.44) who were studying in a school at Alwar district in the state of Rajasthan, were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were assessed for locus of control using locus of control scale and for parent child relationship with parent child relationship scale (PCRS). The parent child relationship scale (PCRS) was categorized into 10 subcategories. Pearson correlation analyses were performed using PASW (SPSS version 18.0) to determine how the parent child relationship would predict locus of control among school going students.

Results: Locus of control by powerful other (a dimension of LOC out of four) was positively correlated with (i) loving (p <0.05), and (ii) object reward parent child relationship (p <0.05) and negatively correlated with neglecting parent child relationship (p <0.05). Individual control LOC showed negative correlation with demanding parent child relationship (p <0.05).  Rejecting parent child relationship significantly negatively correlated with locus of control (p <0.05). Neglecting parent child relationship showed a negative trend of correlation with locus of control.

Conclusions: The results suggest that the rejecting parent child relationship negatively affects locus of control of the school going students. Less number of the participants is the main limitation of the study.

Keywords: Parent child relationship; locus of control.

Introduction

Family has an important role in the development of an adolescent. Child learns everything from family and makes parents as a role model. Role models play an important role during the process of identity formation.1 Different types of parent child relationship impact the development of adolescent differently. Parent child relationship is a great source to determine the personality and psychosocial development of children.2 Parent-adolescent relationship refers to the frequency and intensity of communication patterns between young people and their parents.3 Different kinds of parenting style impact the development differently on the adolescents. It is necessary for the parents to provide best possible environment at home, to create a conducive, fostering and supportive experiences for smooth transition from adolescence into adulthood.4

Adolescence is a transition phase in our life during which important physical, psychological changes occurs. The transition phase into adulthood can bring moments of insecurity, helplessness, uselessness, isolation5 and psycho-somatic problems such as anxiety, tensions, frustrations and emotional upsets in day to day life.6 These changes can have a negative impact on the parent child relationship. In addition to this, decline in parental support may result in further deteriorations in parent-child relationships, which may lead to problems, such as academic failure, low self-esteem, misbehavior,7 stress, unhappiness, insecurity,8 and negative psychological adjustment. In an earlier study, there were 382 adolescents showed significant negative relationships between fathers' authoritative parenting style (r = -.243, p <.001) and authoritarian parenting style (r = -.130, p <.01) with adolescents' internal locus of control.9 Locus of control refers to a set of beliefs about how one behaves and the relationship of that behavior to how one is rewarded or punished. 10 Rotter, 1966 defined locus of control as the degree to which a person believes that control of reinforcement is internal versus the degree to which it is external. If one believes that rewards are the results of their own behavior, this would be an internal locus of control.11 On the other hand, if one believes that rewards occur as a result of intervention by others, one believes in an external of control. Levenson created a multidimensional scale which is comprised of three independent components, namely, internality, powerful others, and chance, wherein one can regard oneself as internal and yet also believe in the power of luck.12

Hence relationship with parent can influence the locus of control of the child. The present study was done with the objective to study the relationship between locus of control and parent child relationship of the adolescent students. The hypothesis of the present study was that dimension of locus of control would be related with categories of parent child relationship.

Methods and Materials

Participants

In the present study, fifty participants with group mean age ± S.D., 16.25 ± 0.44 participated. They were studying in a school at Alwar district in the state of Rajasthan. The inclusion criteria were: (i) normal health, and (ii) minimum 10 years of education. The exclusion criteria were: (i) incomplete or incorrectly filled in questionnaires, and (ii) those who were using stimulants or intoxicating substances. The details of the questionnaires were described to the participants. The study was permitted by the management committee of the institution.

Design

The study used a single group, cross-sectional design. Participants were assessed in single session.

Assessments

The following assessments were done using two questionnaires.

Parent child relationship scale (PCRS)

The relationship of child with parents was using parent child relationship scale. This scale was developed by Dr. Nalini Rao. The scale contains 100 items categorizes into 10 dimensions,viz., (i) protecting, (ii) symbolic punishment, (iii) rejecting, (iv) object punishment, (v) demanding, (vi) indifferent, (vii) symbolic reward, (viii) loving, (ix) object reward, and (x) neglecting. Each category has 10 items out of 100 items. There are 5 possible responses to each item, viz., (i) very rarely, scored as ‘1’, (ii) rarely, scored as ‘2’, (iii) sometime, scored as ‘3’, (iv) many times, scored as ‘4’ and (v) always, scored as ‘5’. The scale was standardized for boys and girls in the age group of 13 to 16 years.

Locus of control (LOC)

The LOC questionnaire was developed by Sanjay Vohra. This questionnaire consists of 24 items which are categorized into 4 dimensions, viz., (a) powerful others; participant believe that other people control their outcome, (b) chance control; unordered chance or random events control outcome, (c) individual control; outcomes controlled by own efforts, and (d) total locus of control. There are 5 possible responses for each item, viz., (i) strongly disagree, scored as ‘5’, (ii) disagree, scored as ‘4’, (iii) undecided, scored as ‘3’, (iv) agree, scored as ‘2’, and (v) strongly agree, scored as ‘1’. The present scale was also validated against the Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale i.e., the concurrent validity was also established. The test-retest reliability after one week time the test retest reliability coefficient was found to be 0.69 for P, 0.72 for C, and 0.66 for I.

Data analysis

Pearson correlation analyses were performed using PASW (SPSS version 18.0) to determine how the parent child relationship would predict locus of control among school going adolescents.

Results

Locus of control by powerful other (a dimension of LOC out of four) was positively correlated with (i) loving (p <0.05), and (ii) object reward parent child relationship (p <0.05 and negatively correlated with neglecting parent child relationship (p <0.05). Individual control LOC showed negative correlation with demanding parent child relationship (p <0.05).  Rejecting parent child relationship significantly negatively correlated with locus of control (p <0.05). Neglecting parent child relationship showed a negative trend of correlation with locus of control.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion

 

 

The present study showed that locus of control by powerful other is significantly correlated with loving and object loving relationship and it was found negatively correlated with neglecting parent child relationship. Locus of control has inverse relationship with rejection. Demanding parent child relationship has inverse relationship with individual LOC. Rejecting parent child relationship significantly negatively correlated with locus of control.

The results of present study showed parents should enhance relationship with their child to improve locus of control, development,13 and cognitive development.14 Locus of control plays a major role in many aspects of human behavior such as achievement motivation, success orientation, self control, socially adjustment, independence and expectancy.15

Limitations of the present study was small sample size, the use of psychometrically weak measures of child outcomes, and the failure to control for confounding family-of-origin characteristics, such as social class.16,17

Conclusion

The results suggest that the rejecting parent child relationship negatively affects locus of control of the adolescent students.

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Group mean values ± s.d. for scores of the questionnaires

S. No.

Questionnaires

Mean±S.D.

1.

Locus of control

 

 

·         Powerful others

23.76±4.98

 

·         Chance control

23.45±5.19

 

·         Individual control

24.72±4.70

 

·         Total

71.48±11.79

2.

Parent Child Relationship

 

 

·         Protecting

67.41±13.87

 

·         Symbolic  Punishment

62.10±12.07

 

·         Rejecting

51.69±13.40

 

·         Object Punishment

50.93±18.66

 

·         Demanding

60.69±13.22

 

·         Indifferent

54.34±10.15

 

·         Symbolic  Reward

69.52±12.05

 

·         Loving

63.55±9.70

 

·         Object Reward

57.45±11.62

 

·         Neglecting

50.14±9.54

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2. Response of locus of control to the parent child relationship

Parent Child Relationship                                                               Locus of Control            

 

Measures

Powerful Others

Chance Control

Individual Control

Total

 

Protecting

r

.021

.256

.000

.152

 

Symbolic  Punishment

r

.021

.073

-.062

.046

 

Rejecting

r

-.152

-.028

.009

-.315*

 

Object Punishment

r

.041

-.010

.073

-.196

 

Demanding

r

-.029

.187

-.369*

-.205

 

Indifferent

r

-.302

-.155

-.108

-.194

 

Symbolic  Reward

r

.189

.090

-.041

.107

 

  Loving

r

.410*

.091

. .201

-.005

 

Object Reward

r

.391*

.094

.140

.011

Neglecting

r

-.356*

-.184

-.178

-.261

 

P<0.05=*, P<0.01=**; Pearson correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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