INDIAN PSYCHOSOCIAL FOUNDATION
 
   INDIAN PSYCHOSOCIAL FOUNDATION
         
IJPS >
IJPS April 2011
IJPS October 2011
IJPS April 2012
IJPS October 2012
IJPS April 2013
IJPS October 2013
IJPS Apirl 2014
IJPS October 2014
IJPS Apirl 2015
IJPS Apirl 2016
IJPS October 2016
IJPS Apirl 2017
 
 
 

Original Article

MENTAL HEALTH AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FOR WELLBEING: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY

Sudha Kumari

Associate Professor, Department of Education,  Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,

 

Abstract

Background: Over the past decade, research studies and reviews have consistently concluded that students’ health status and achievement is deeply connected. The present study is aimed at studying the relationship of academic achievement and mental health among students. In the present study various studies was studied by the investigator to conclude the type of relationship between academic achievement and mental health.

Aim: The present study concludes that there is exists a positive and significant relation between academic achievement and mental health of students.

Methodology:The method adopted for the present study can be categorised as descriptive statistical in nature. The present study is based on correlation method where the dependent variable is academic achievement and the independent variable is mental health. In the present study the total sample of XII class secondary school students from various secondary schools of Aligarh and Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh were taken. Out of the total sample of 865, 520 science and 345 arts respondents were selected.Mental Health Battery (MHB) by Singh and Gupta (2008) has been used for the data collection of the study. Academic achievement scores were collected from the results of XII class board examination marks of the subjects from their school records. Mental health battery (MHB) intends to assess the status of mental health of persons in the age range of 13 to 22 years. This battery was prepared by Singh and Gupta in the year 2008. 130 items were retained with six dimensions for MHB and these are i) Emotional Stability, ii) Overall Adjustment, iii) Autonomy, iv) Security-Insecurity, v) Self-Concept and vi) intelligence. The answers of those items (in each part) which tally with the answers given in the scoring key was given a score of 1. If they don’t tally, they were given a score of zero.

Result: there is significant and positive relationship between adjustment and academic achievement (r = .1178), autonomy and academic achievement (r = .0756), security-insecurity and academic achievement (r = .0652). Also a significant and positive relationship is found between self-concept and academic achievement (r = .1798), intelligence and academic achievement (r = .3612). Contradictory to these, a positive and no significant relationship was found between emotional stability and academic achievement (r = .0230) Thus, it is evident from the table 1 that there is a significant and positive relationship between mental health and academic achievement (r = .2587). Therefore, the hypothesis i.e., There is significant relationship between criterion variable (i.e. academic achievement) and predictor variable (i.e. mental health) is accepted.

Conclusion:Thus, the present study concluded that the Mental Health was found to be significantly and positively related to the academic achievement of total number of students

Keywords: mental health , academic achievement, wellbeing

Introduction

The relationship between health status and academic achievement is more complex than it would seem at first glance. The link between unmet mental health problems and compromised academic achievement is well established. While there is a strong evidence that children whose health care needs are met are less likely to miss school days of illness and better able to focus on learning in the classroom, school performance is multi-determined. Psychiatric disorders had a significant negative impact on all aspects of school attitude and functioning including aspirations for higher education, academic performance and school adjustment. Psychiatric disorders emerged as a risk factor which had it’s greatest impact when added to other factors that potentially undermine school success. The stressors that may undermine educational success are also risk factors for early developmental and later psychiatric disorders.

Over the past decade, research studies and reviews have consistently concluded that students’ health status and achievement is deeply connected. Evidence has been mounting that meeting the basic developmental needs of students – ensuring that they are safe, drug free, healthy and resilient – is central to improving their academic performance. It has long been acknowledged that a variety of psychological and healthy problems affect learning and performance in profound ways. Such problems are exacerbated as youngsters internalize the debilitating effects of performing poorly at school and are punished for the misbehaviour that is a common correlate of school failure. Mental health is a state of successful mental functioning, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships, and the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity. Due to these reason schools have come under enormous pressure in recent years to demonstrate academic gains and to address deeply rooted disparities among students’ of different races, ethnic groups, and income levels. Clearly, boosting academic achievement should be a top priority.

Mental Health

 Mental health for each person is affected by individual factors and experiences, social interaction, societal structures and resources, and cultural values. It is influenced by experiences in everyday life, in families and schools, on streets, and at work. Mental Health is described as: “a state of well being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.” Academic achievement is among the most thoroughly studied social consequences of mental health problems. studies on the relationship between children’s emotional distress and achievement behavior, found that students with frequent feelings of internalized distress (e.g., sadness, anxiety, depression) show diminished academic functioning and those with externalized distress (e.g., anger, frustration, and fear) exhibit school difficulties including learning delays and poor achievement 1 Youth with mental health problems perform less well in school and attain lower levels of education than other youth. Adolescents with high levels of depression, attention problems and delinquency score lower on standardized achievement tests of verbal and performance IQ than youth with low levels of problems.

Review of Related Studies

There are few related studies that have considered multiple types of problems simultaneously. Attention problems, delinquency (or conduct problems), and substance use are more strongly associated with subsequent educational attainment than is depression 2,3 Depression and self-esteem are two such variables. While there is some evidence in the literature on how depression and self-esteem affect achievement and achievement motivation 4],5 Theories of non cognitive traits imply that combinations of problems that involve delinquency and substance use will have especially strong associations with academic achievement because these problems are more likely to disrupt classrooms and generate punitive responses. Teachers judge oppositional behaviors as volitional and coercive, whereas they judge the behaviors associated with ADHD as involuntary 6 Clinical research suggests that youth who have more than one problem will face additional challenges in school simply because they are more impaired. For example, depressed youth who experience other mental health or behavior problems have more depressive episodes and use services at a higher rate than depressed youth who do not experience other problems 7 Global functioning also declines with increases in the number of problems youth experience 8 Finding that academic achievement declines with the number of problems regardless of which problems they are would suggest that increases in impairment are responsible for the association. The ability of children to learn can be significantly affected their mental health. Emerging evidence suggests exposure to violence has lifelong effects on learning and threatens students' academic performance. This is manifested in students' lack of interest and behaviour problems at school, poor concentration, low grades, low self-esteem, high dropout rate and general decline in academic performance. The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem and academic achievement and results revealed that physical activity can also increase academic performance indirectly by improving emotional health, self-esteem and alertness – all of which are related to improve academic performance 9 Sound mental health was positively related to academic achievement and both them were positively related to parental status. The degree of mental health was also related to the type of school, being the highest in convent schools, followed by Sainik, DAV and DM schools, respectively 10

Educational expectations of junior high school students in interaction with school related stress during early adolescence would adversely affect grades during high school. Findings revealed that early adolescence school related stress both independently and in interaction with high academic expectations negatively affected academic performance 3 years later 11 

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders who exhibit externalizing problem behaviors (i.e. attention and conduct disorders) are more likely to experience academic deficits and terminate schooling than students who evidence internalizing (i.e. mood and anxiety disorders) ones. People with a lifetime occurrence of social phobia are almost twice as likely to fail a grade or not finish high school as those who have never had the condition. High depression scores have been associated with low academic achievement; high scholastic anxiety, increased school suspensions; and decreased ability or desire to complete homework, concentrate, and attend class. Substance abuse, including alcohol abuse in isolation, is significantly associated with termination of primary and secondary school, failure to enter college, and termination of college. Attention problems are the principal predictor of diminished achievement relative to expectations on the basis of a young person’s cognitive ability. Poor attendance, particularly frequent absences for vague, non-specific physical health problems, may be related to underlying mental health needs 12 Difficulties with academic work, social integration, adjustment to school, behaviour regulation, attention, and concentration may be school-related signs of emerging or existing mental health problems in youth. Secondary school students who suffer from mental illness are more likely to earn failing grades across all subjects and are retained at grade level more often than youth with disabilities as a whole. High school students who screen positive for psychosocial dysfunction have three times the absentee and tardy rates of students not identified with psychosocial dysfunction 13. Students reporting high levels of psychosocial stress are more likely to perceive themselves as less academically competent 14 From the above clarification it can be justified that the present study makes a humble attempt to trace the impact of mental health on the academic achievement. The present study will be useful for educators in general and teachers in particular because the knowledge of the relationship of these factors under study will enable the educators and teachers to plan their educational programs.A study on the topic of “Impact of Family Climate, Mental; Health, Study Habits, and Self-Confidence on the academic achievement of Senior Secondary Students” 15

Objective The objective of the present study was to study the relationship between criterion variable (i.e. academic achievement) and predictor variable (i.e. mental health).

Hypothesis On the basis of this objective the study was hypothesized  “there is significant relationship between criterion variable (i.e. academic achievement) and predictor variable (i.e. mental health)”.

Methodology method adopted for the present study can be categorised as descriptive statistical in nature. The present study is based on correlation method where the dependent variable is academic achievement and the independent variable is mental health. In the present study the total sample of XII class secondary school students from various secondary schools of Aligarh and Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh were taken. Out of the total sample of 865, 520 science and 345 arts respondents were selected.

Tools Mental Health Battery (MHB) by Singh and Gupta (2008) has been used for the data collection of the study. Academic achievement scores were collected from the results of XII class board examination marks of the subjects from their school records. Mental health battery (MHB) intends to assess the status of mental health of persons in the age range of 13 to 22 years. This battery was prepared by Singh and Gupta in the year 2008. 130 items were retained with six dimensions for MHB and these are i) Emotional Stability, ii) Overall Adjustment, iii) Autonomy, iv) Security-Insecurity, v) Self-Concept and vi) intelligence. The answers of those items (in each part) which tally with the answers given in the scoring key were given a score of 1. If they don’t tally, they were given a score of zero.

Results The results were verified for testing the hypothesis. Product Moment Correlation was applied and the relationship was calculated between criterion variable (i.e. academic achievement) and predictor variable (i.e. mental health). The correlation value of mental health and academic achievement is given in the table

Table:    Showing relationship between Academic Achievement and various dimensions of Mental Health

Dimensions of Mental Health (MH)

Academic Achievement

Emotional Stability

.0230NS

Adjustment

.1178**

Autonomy

.0756*

Security-Insecurity

.0652*

Self-Concept

.1798**

Intelligence

.3612**

                              Total Mental Health

.2587**

  ** = Significant at 0.01 level

   * = Significant at 0.05 level

NS = Not significant at any level

 

It is evident from the table 1 that there is significant and positive relationship between adjustment and academic achievement (r = .1178), autonomy and academic achievement (r = .0756), security-insecurity and academic achievement (r = .0652). Also a significant and positive relationship is found between self-concept and academic achievement (r = .1798), intelligence and academic achievement (r = .3612). Contradictory to these, a positive and no significant relationship was found between emotional stability and academic achievement (r = .0230) Thus, it is evident from the table 1 that there is a significant and positive relationship between mental health and academic achievement (r = .2587). Therefore, the hypothesis i.e., There is significant relationship between criterion variable (i.e. academic achievement) and predictor variable (i.e. mental health) is accepted.

Conclusion

Thus, the present study concluded that the Mental Health was found to be significantly and positively related to the academic achievement of total number of students. The results of the present study are borne out by Tremblay, Inman and Willms (1998) results, which revealed that physical activity, can also increase academic performance indirectly by improving emotional health, self-esteem and alertness – all of which are related to improve academic performance. Also the results of Anand, 1989; Kaplan, et al. 2005; Hunt et al. 2010; Johnson et al. 1999; Dotan, 1990; Hollon, 1970; Blechman, McEnroe, Carella, & Audette, 1986; Harter, 1983; Learner & Kruger, 1997; Lovejoy, 1996; Rohde, Lewinsohn and Seeley, 1991; Lewinsohn et al. 1995 and Tremblay et al. 1998 concluded that performance is associated with good mental health.

Suggestions

In this connection it can be said that there is an important role of parents’, teachers’ and also the each member of the society to guide the students those who have mental illness or disorder related to their studies for the development of academic achievement and also for wellbeing. Some of the studies also supported this that parent and teacher have most important role to prevent the problem of students related to their mental health. Ministry of Education (British Columbia, 2001) outlined some important remediation as (i) systematic observation (ii) Meaningful communication with parents’ (iii) Effective collaboration and consultation with other service providers, and (iv) Taking action to support students in an informed way. The report of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services entitled by “promotion and prevention in mental health: strengthening parenting and enhancing child resilienceconcluded that Promotion and prevention programs for children work Research and practice indicate which programs work best and for which populations. Children’s mental health is the foundation on which they build their adult life. It is up to policy makers, in concert with parents and others who can help influence the outcome, to ensure that children have every opportunity to achieve the mental health status that will enable them to be successful, contributing members of their families, their communities, and their Nation.

References

1.        Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Strobel, K. R. (1998). Linking the study of schooling and mental health: Selected issues and empirical illustrations at the level of the individual. Educational Psychologist, 33, 153-176.

2.        Hunt, Justin, Daniel Eisenberg, and Amy M. Kilbourne. 2010. “Consequences of Receipt of a Psychiatric Diagnosis for Completion of College.” Psychiatric Services61:399–404.

3.        Johnson, Jeffrey G., Patricia Cohen, Bruce P. Dohrenwend, Bruce G. Link, and Judith S. Brook. 1999. “A Longitu-dinal Investigation of Social Causation and Social Selec-tion Processes Involved in the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Psychiatric Disorders.” Jour-nal of Abnormal Psychology 108: 490–499.

4.        Blechman, E.A., McEnroe, M.J., Carella, E.T., & Audette, D.P. (1986). Childhood competence and depression. Journal of Ab-normal Psychology, 95, 223 –227.

5.        Learner, D.G., & Kruger, L.J. (1997). Attachment, self-concept, and academic motivation in high-school students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 485 – 492.

6.        Lovejoy, M. Christine. 1996. “Social Inferences Regard-ing Inattentive-Overactive and Aggressive Child Behavior and their Effects on Teacher Reports of Discipline.” Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 25: 33–42.

7.        Rohde, Paul, Peter M. Lewinsohn, and John R. Seeley. 1991. “Comorbidity of Unipolar Depression: II. Comorbidity with Other Mental Disorders in Adoles-cents and Adults.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100: 214–222.

8.        Lewinsohn, Peter M., Paul Rohde, and John R. Seeley. 1995. “Adolescent Psychopathology: III. The Clini-cal Consequences of Comorbidity.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychia-try 34: 509–510.

9.        Tremblay, M., Inman, W. and Willms, J. D. (1998). The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem and academic achievement in twelve-year old children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12: 312 – 324.

10.     Anand, S. P. (1989). Mental Health of High School Students. Indian Educational Review (IER), 24 (2): 14 – 24.

11.     Kaplan, D. S. et al. (2005). School related stress in early adolescence and academic performance three years later: The conditional influence of self-expectations. Journal of Social Psychology of Education, 8 (1): 3 – 17.

12.     DeSocio, J. and Hootman, J. (2004). Children’s mental health and school success. The Journal of School Nursing20(4):189-196.

13.     Gall, G. et al. (2000). Utility of psychosocial screening at a school-based health center. The Journal of School Health 70(7):292-298

14.     Masi, G. et al. (2001). Depressive symptoms and academic self-image in adolescence. Psychopathology 34:57-61.

15.     Jafri, S. (2011). Impact of Family Climate, Mental; Health, Study Habits, and Self-Confidence on the academic achievement of Senior Secondary Students. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Education Department, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 107-112