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JOB SATISFACTION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

1 V. Siva Sankar, 2 P. Vasudha

District Coordinator Child Line India Foundation Nodal OrganizationAsian Gandhian Studies Tirupati1  Research Scholar Dept. of Psychology

S.V. University Tirupati2

 

 

 

Abstract

Background- Job satisfaction is as important in the teaching profession as it is in any other profession. A professionally satisfied school teacher has a friendly attitude, greater enthusiasm and a higher value pattern. Such school teachers contribute immensely towards the educational advancement of the students, whereas a dissatisfied school teachers is generally found to be irritable, depressed, hostile and neurotic in his attitude. Such dissatisfied school teachers often makes the life of his students miserable, there by causing a great harm to the institution as well as to the society.

Aim-The present study aimed at studying the impact of gender and locality of school on the job satisfaction among primary school teachers.

Methodology-The sample consists of 60 men and 60 women primary school teachers hailing from rural and urban localities. It was predicted that gender and locality of school would significantly influence the job satisfaction of primary school teachers. Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers was assessed by Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) 1. A 2x2 Factorial design was employed and the data were subjected to Analysis of Variance to test he hypotheses.

Results-It is found that there is significant difference between men and women teachers with regard to their job satisfaction, but there is no significant difference between rural and urban school teachers with regard to job satisfaction. 

Conclusion- Job satisfaction depends on facility and nature of job.

Introduction

The success of any education system mainly depends on the quality of its teachers. Unless the teacher derives job satisfaction he cannot initiate desirable outcomes to cater to the needs of the society. Job satisfaction involves liking for the work and acceptance of the pressures and aspirations connected with that work. Every profession has got certain aspects conducive for job satisfaction. At the same time, it has other aspects which lead to dissatisfaction. Teaching profession is no exception. If we know the dissatisfying factors we can try to reduce them and teachers can be happy in their occupation.

Thus, job satisfaction is a chief factor in an organization which plays a main role to run the organization in a steady and smooth way with great morale, discipline and harmonious acclimatization of employees. Job satisfaction is the way an employee feels about his or her job. "It can defined as a psychological feeling of conviction, satisfaction, and happiness to satisfy the needs, desires, expectations of the work itself (job content) beside the working environment, the confidence and loyalty to work, internal and external related factors and environmental influences"2.

Job satisfaction is as important in the teaching profession as it is in any other profession. A professionally satisfied school teacher has a friendly attitude, greater enthusiasm and a higher value pattern. Such school teachers contribute immensely towards the educational advancement of the students, whereas a dissatisfied school teachers is generally found to be irritable, depressed, hostile and neurotic in his attitude. Such dissatisfied school teachers often makes the life of his students miserable, there by causing a great harm to the institution as well as to the society. Thus, job satisfaction plays an important role to the employee in terms of health and well-being and also involves the pressures and aspirations connected with that work.

 

Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon having multiple inter co-related casual factors: personal, social, cultural and economic. Givens was found in this study that job satisfaction and years of experience in teaching, a number of years worked in current location, the annual salary, future career plans, and satisfaction from the teaching profession3 so the Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes the person holds towards his job, towards related factors and towards life in general. Job satisfaction depends on various attitudes of an employee, related to the job and is concerned with factors like wages, supervision steadiness of employment, conditions of work, opportunities for advancement, recognition of ability, fair evaluation of work, social relations in the job, treatment by employer, work environment and other such related factors. Other personal factors such as employee’s age, gender, health temperament and level of aspiration should also consider.  Many studies had been done in the field of job satisfaction like4 demonstrated that there is no statistical significant difference in job satisfaction between male and female teachers being linked to the leadership style of the director. There was also no impact of each of the teaching experience and the educational level on job satisfaction for teachers.

Empirical research data of a study that was conducted in the United Kingdom indicated that teachers differed in job satisfaction in relation to the type of school in which they worked 5 the teachers who worked in independent and private schools in the United Kingdom indicated higher levels of job satisfaction than their colleagues in other types of schools (ibid). However, other research findings indicate that teachers in public and private schools did not differ in the job satisfaction levels significantly6.

This implies that the location of school was a determinant factor of their differences in job satisfaction. Azahar investigated the difference between gender (male and female teachers) and types of school (urban and rural) about job satisfaction.7 Study was descriptive in nature and Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire was used to collect data. Generally teachers were less satisfied with advancement, compensation, supervision human-relation, and working conditions. Female teachers were more satisfied than their male counterparts. There was no significant difference between urban and rural teachers’ job satisfaction8

 

Hypotheses of the study

 

  1. There would be significant impact of gender on the job satisfaction of primary school teachers.
  2. There would be significant difference between rural and urban primary school teachers with regard to their job satisfaction.
  3. There would be significant interaction between gender and locality of school with regard to job satisfaction.

Methodology

Sample

The sample of the present study consists of 120 primary school teachers randomly selected from the list of primary school teachers both men and women hailing from rural and urban schools located in Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. There are two independent variables and each varied into two ways. A 2x2 factorial design was employed to test the hypotheses. The distribution of the sample is presented in table-1.

Tool

Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) was developed by Spector; P. E. (1997) 1The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) is a 36 item, nine facet scale to assess employee attitudes about the job and aspects of the job. Each facet is assessed with four items, and a total score is computed from all items. A summated rating scale format is used, with six choices per item ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree". Items are written in both directions, so about half must be reverse scored. The nine facets are Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Contingent Rewards (performance based rewards), Operating Procedures (required rules and procedures), Coworkers, Nature of Work, and Communication. The total job satisfaction, based on the sum of all 36 items, can range from 36 to 216.

 

Table-1: Distribution of the Sample

 

 

Gender

Locality of School

 

Total

Rural

Urban

Male

30

30

60

Female

30

30

60

Total

60

60

120

 

Results and Discussion

 

Table-2: Mean and SDs of Scores on Job Satisfaction

 

 

Gender

 

Locality of School

 

Urban

Rural

Male

Mean

34.23

32.20

SD

3.85

4.26

Female

Mean

30.23

29.30

SD

3.85

4.49

 

Male     = 33.21

Urban = 32.23

Female = 29.76

Rural  = 30.75

 

A close observation of above Table-2 indicates that male teachers working in urban school had obtained a highest mean of (34.23) indicating that male teachers working in urban school have more job satisfaction. The female teachers working in rural areas had obtained lowest mean of (29.30) indicating that male teachers working in rural areas have low job satisfaction.

 

 

Table-3: Summary of ANNOVA for Self-Efficacy scores

 

Source of Variance

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Sum of Squares

F

Gender

76.79

1

76.79

4.3 *

Locality

58.79

1

58.79

3.3 @

Gender x Locality

163.32

1

163.32

9.17 **

Error

2064.97

116

17.9

-

Total

2363.87

119

-

-

 

* - Significant at 0.05 level

** - Significant at 0.01 level

@- Not Significant

 

A close of observation of Table-3 the obtained “F” value 4.3 for gender is significant at 0.05 level. As the “F’ value is significant that the hypothesis, which predicted that “there would be significant impact of gender on the job satisfaction of primary school teachers” is accepted as warranted by the results. Male primary school teachers have high job satisfaction compared to female primary school teachers. This may be because the physical settings of the school, the number of children in the class, long hours of teaching, noise, self and family demands and conflicts with relatives all are the factors which affect the job satisfaction among female school teachers. These findings also contradict with earlier studies Hollen and Gemmill (1976), Gobel (1977) and Chen (1977) revealed that men teachers were more satisfied with their job than were women teachers.

 

 

The obtained “F” value of 3.3 for locality is not significant. As the “F” value is not significant indicating that locality of school has no significant impact on the job satisfaction of the primary school teachers. Both urban and rural primary school teachers have showed similar levels of job satisfaction. Thus the hypothesis which predicted that “there would be significant difference between urban and rural primary school teachers with regard to their job satisfaction” is rejected as warranted by the results. These results provide support for the earlier studies revealed that there was no significant difference between urban and rural teachers’ job satisfaction.8

 

The obtained “F” value of 9.17 for the interaction effect is significant beyond 0.01 level indicting that “there is significant interaction between gender and locality of school with regard to job satisfaction among primary school teachers” is accepted.

 

Conclusion

 

Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. A large number of factors of the employee like his temperament, health, age, social status, activities, political or social organization, determine his satisfaction on the job. In our Study gender of school teachers has significant impact on the job satisfaction of primary school teachers. Male teachers are processing higher job satisfaction than female teachers. Similar result was found in the United States revealed that there were significant differences in the levels of job satisfaction between male and female teachers7,10. Working of place is also important factor for any profession; their facilities and relation with colleague. So we found in our study that locality of school has no significant impact on job satisfaction of the primary school teachers. Urban school teachers are having higher job satisfaction than the rural teachers. It was also supported by a study findings indicated that teachers who worked in schools that are in the remote/rural areas were less satisfied with their jobs than those working in urban areas9.There is significant interaction between gender and locality of school with regard to the job satisfaction of primary school teachers. 

 

References

 

1.        Spector, P. E. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences. California: Sage Publications.

2.        Alaadili, M. (1995). Human behavior and organizational holistic perspective comparative, Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh: Saudi Arabia.

3.        Givens, R.Y. (1989). Job satisfaction of vocational office education teachers in Tennessee as deteeermined by selected demographic factors .Dissertation Abstracts, 50 (02), 335A. (University Microfilms NO.AAAC 89 – 04056)

4.        Windel, R.E. (1991) .Elementary principal styles. Dissertation Abstracts, 52 (04), 1173A.(University Microfilms No .AAC91-24373)

5.        Bishay, A. (1996). Teacher motivation and job satisfaction: a study employing the experience sampling method. Journal of Undergraduate Sciences, 3, 147-154.

6.        Zhongshan, Z. (2008). Study of job satisfaction among elementary schools in Shanghai. Chinese Educational Society, Vol. 40, No. 5, 40-46.

7.        Azhar et al. (2011). Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers: A Comparative Analysis of Gender, Urban and Rural Schools. Asian Social Science, Vol. 7(8).

8.        Crossman, A. and Harris, P. (2006). Job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. Educational Management and Leadership, Vol. 34 No. 1, 29-46.

9.        Bennell, P. & Akyeampong, K. (2007). Teacher Motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. DFID Department of international Development, 71.

10.     Al-Qaisi,T. (1995). Following qualifications and experience, and sex in the satisfaction of mathematics teachers for the teaching profession in government schools in the province of South Jordan. Master, Mutah University, Mutah: Jorda.