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A STUDY OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SUB

A STUDY OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN JUVENILE DELIQUENT AND STREET CHILDREN

 Samiksha Kaur,* Jai Singh Yadav**

* Psychologist SRLNMH Varanasi, **Assistant Professor, Dept of Psychiatry, IMS,BHU

Abstract

Introduction: There are much evidence in literature of juvenile crime and street children, which highlights the psychosocial problem of the delinquent like economic, family, peer, and educational factors associated with delinquency and recidivism, and the important roles of social service and educational systems. Besides of these factors substance abuse and mental illness are also important factors for discussion. The purpose of this paper was to asses the mental health and substance abuse of juveniles.

Aim:     Assessment of the mental health and substance abuse of both delinquent and street childrens. Assessment of the crime both delinquent and street childrens.        

Method: 35 delinquents subject and street children were taken for the study from the observation home (Bal Sampresan Grih) Ramnagar Varanasi . The age, sex, socioeconomic status was same. The group of was 15 to 22 years. The mean age of subject was 18.5 years. All delinquent were male and non convicted.

Tools-Dr O N Srivastava and Dr B.K. Bhatt Hindi adaptation scale was used. This scale was reliable and valid.  The scale was divided in to five subsection FFA,OBS, PHO, SOM, DEP ,HYS, each subsection have 8 items. The number of item in the scale was 48. Scoring was positive and negative warded.

Procedure- subject were taken individually first, demographic details was written. Then apply the questioner individually both in same manner.

Result: the result was show that low socioeconomic status, low education of parents and child, low occupation, neglection, separated or single parents, death of both parents was responsible for delinquency.  And the 2nd aim result show that delinquent children were higher involves in substance abuse then street chide. The result of mental health questioner anxiety and depressive symptoms and somatic concomitant were higher in street children then delinquent children. Remind 3 subsection results like obsessive behavior, phobic attitude, and hysterical symptoms was higher in delinquent children then street child.

Conclusion: The study shows that poor socioeconomic status, low education, lot of siblings was responsible for substance abuse and mental health.

Key words - Delinquent children, Street Children, FFA( Free Floating Anxiety), OBS(Obsessive Trait and Symptoms), PHO(Phobic Anxiety) SOM (Somatic Concomitants) DEP(Depression)HYS(Hysterical Trait and Symptoms)


Introduction


The whole world today is passing through a crisis. Violence and terrorism, injustice and exploitation are on the increase all over the world. The strong oppress the week; the rich are unjust to the poor. This unjust and poor leaving of standard makes a man terrorist, delinquent. Juvenile delinquency is the legal term for behavior of children and adolescents that in adults would be judged criminal under law. Theft is the most common offense by children; more serious property crimes and rape are most frequently committed in later youth. The causes of such behavior, like those of crime in general, are found in a complex of psychological, social, and economic factors. Clinical studies have uncovered emotional maladjustments, usually arising from disorganized family situations, in many delinquents. Street Children are those unfortunate children who basically have only intermittent contact with parents or family (usually mother or sisters) but live most of the time with other street children in the city streets, or are on the move. There are numerous reasons for a child to leave home have been literally abandoned by their parents/relatives, found themselves on the street from the beginning because of family problems, or have chosen to leave home due to some kind of constant abuse. Those who have run away from home can further be separated into two categories. Those have an unpleasant or traumatic home environment. They experience family problems they are unable to solve: i.e., alcoholism, child abuse, ill treatment by stepparents, unemployment and poverty.  Criminal behaviors are highly prevalent among adolescents. The age group of 10-20 year’s accounted for 16 percent involment in crime but 32.1 percent of all arrests, 29.8 percent of arrests for violent crime and 48.3 percent of arrests for property crime.1 many literature examining the determinants of juvenile crime, which highlights economic, family, peer, and educational factors associated with delinquency and recidivism.2,3 While these factors are extremely important, two factors are also important for discussion substance abuse and mental illness in juvenile and street children. Ellison found in his study the effectiveness of mental health and substance abuse treatment in reducing crimes committed by juveniles.

Many studies have shown that youth with substance abuse or mental health disorders have higher offending rates than those without disorders.4-6 For example, Vander Stoep et al.7 show that youth enrolled in a public mental health system had three times as many police referrals to the juvenile justice system as those in the general child population. Others have shown higher rates of violence and aggression among youth with mental health problems.8,9

In a study 18,19 found strong positive relationship between substance abuse and crime in violent and nonviolent youths. in other study violent male inmate regarding violent crime,(beating, threatening, fight with weapons) found in local jails reports drinking and intoxication special in marijuana increase the violence at the time of offence then property crime inmates.20 ,24,25 study of alcohol and marijuana use are highly correlated with increased violent behaviors in both black and white adolescent males and violence in school.27,26 these study was found out of India. The paucity of the study we concentrate for study. The purpose of this paper was to asses the mental health and substance abuse of juveniles.

Aims

            1-Assessment of the mental health and substance abuse of both delinquent and street children’s.

2-Assessment of the crime in both delinquent and street children’s.

Method

35 delinquents subject and street children were taken for the study from the observation home (Bal Sampresan Grih) Ramnagar Varanasi . The age, sex,  were same. The group of was 15 to 22 years. The mean age of subject was 18.5 years. All delinquent were male and non convicted.

Tools

 Dr O N Srivastava and Dr B.K. Bhatt Hindi adaptation scale was used. This scale was reliable and valid.  The scale was divided in to five subsection FFA,OBS, PHO, SOM, DEP ,HYS, each subsection have 8 items. The number of item in the scale was 48. Scoring was positive and negative warded.

Procedure

 subject were taken individually first, demographic details was written. Then apply the questioner individually both in same manner.

Result

 The result was show that low socioeconomic status, low education of parents and child, low occupation, neglection, separated or single parents, death of both parents was responsible for delinquency.  And the 2nd aim result show that delinquent children were higher involves in substance abuse then street children’s. The result of mental health questioner anxiety, Phobia, depressive symptoms and somatic concomitant were higher in street children then delinquent children. Remind 3 subsection results like obsessive behavior, phobic attitude, and hysterical symptoms was higher in delinquent children then street children’s. Some evidence suggests that mental illness also promote the illegal behavior in yoths.10,11 Similarly, a number of studies have shown that juvenile were substantially higher rates of mental health and substance abuse disorders than youth in the general population.12-16 For example, Wasserman et al.16 found in his study high rates of disruptive diagnoses (33 percent), substance abuse diagnoses (50 percent), anxiety disorders (20 percent) and mood disorders (10 percent) in juvenile youths then other youth, it was only Substance abuse disorder (11 percent) and mood disorder were found (13percent) and anxiety disorder (25 percents)29


 

 

Age  Group

No of

Age

Percentage

No of

Street

Children

Percentage

15

15

42.8

19

54.2

16

10

28.5

08

22.8

17

06

17.1

07

20

18 and

above

04

11.4

01

2.8

Total

35

 

35

 

Table 1 Age Group

Socioeconomic

Status

No of

Family

DL

%

No of

family

ST

%

High

04

11.4

00

00

Medium

06

17.1

03

8.5

Low

25

71.4

32

91.4

Table 2 Socioeconomic Status

Structure of

Family

No of

Family DL

%

No of

Family ST

%

Joint

06

17.1

00

00

Nuclear

20

57.1

15

42.8

Single Parents

05

14.2

04

11.4

Death of both

parents

02

5.7

05

14.2

Separated

02

5.7

04

11.4

Orpfanges

00

00

07

20

Total

35

 

35

 

Table 3 Structure of Family

Education

of Parents

Edu-cated

DL

Uned-

ucated

DL

Educ-ated

ST

Unedu-cated

ST

Total

Men

15

20

18

17

35

Women

02

33

10

25

35

Table 4 Education of Parents

Education of Child

No of Educational child DL

Percentage

No of Education of child ST

Percentage

Bcom

01

2.85

00

00

Intermediate

04

11.4

00

00

High school

06

17.1

00

00

8

09

25.7

05

14.2

5th

15

42.8

07

20

Total

35

 

35

 

Table 5 Education of Child

Occupation of Parents

No of Occupation DL

Percentage

No of Occupation ST

Percentage

High

00

00

05

14.2

Middle

05

14.2

07

20

Low

30

85.7

23

65.7

Table 6 Occupation of Parents

Name of Substance

No of DL

Percentage of DL

No of ST

% of ST

Cigarette

32

91.4

15

42.8

Alcohol

18

51.4

10

28.57

Gutka

30

85.7

30

85.7

Cannabis

10

28.5

01

02.8

 

Subtype of Mental Health Questioner

No of DL

Percentage of DL

No of ST

% of ST

FFA

16

46                           

25

71.4                           

OBS

21

60                            

07

20                              

PHO

09

26.6                         

14

40                              

SOM

12

33.3                        

18

51.4                           

DEP

20

56.6                        

25

71.4                           

HYS

05

13.3                         

04

11.4                          

 

Types of crime

No of Crime in DL ld

Percentage

No of Crime in ST child

Percentage

Rap

07

20

00

00

Group Violence(loot)

08

22.8

00

00

Gangster Act

05

14.2

00

00

Murder

05

14.2

00

00

Kidnapping

06

17,1

00

00

Snatching

02

5.7

07

20

Theft

01

2.8

08

22.8

420

02

5.7

05

14.2

Total

35

 

 

 

 

Mode of Crime

No of Child DL

Percentage

No of Child ST

Percentage

Major Crime

30

85.8

00

00

Miner Crime

05

14.2

20

57

 

 


Conclusion

India is the biggest home of street children it was estimated 18 million. 22% of the population lives below the income poverty line. Increasing the urban rural migration, Low family income and poor housing predict official and self-reported juvenile and adult offending. The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood on criminal activities indicates that the effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods than in better-off ones (Lynam et al, 2000), even quite young children may be directly exposed to community violence (Osofsky, 1995).

Few study have been done in the field of psychopathology and criminal behavior, the author have been found and argued that if identify the criminal behavior early child hood and mental disorder can be reduce the crime. William found 51.4% of male young adult offenders had child psychiatry problem. In our study we found obsessive behavior and anxiety is higher in delinquent children whereas street children have higher neurotic tendency eg anxiety, somatic disorder, depression, and phobia were found. Children were identified for offence group included /conduct disorder /substance abuse, emotional disorder like anxiety, depression, poor family background shown to predict criminality and violence behavior whereas moderate offenses include arrange of poverty crime. In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, an unstable job record at the age of 18 years was also an important predictor of young men’s convictions between the ages of 21 and 25 (Farrington, 1995). In addition, having an unskilled manual job at the age of 18 was an independent predictor of adult social dysfunction and antisocial personality at the age of 32. Between the ages of 15 and 18, young males in study were convicted at a higher rate when they were unemployed than when they were employed, suggesting that unemployment is associated with crime. In our study also supporting this view because mostly child belong to the low socioeconomic status and the age of 18 years, these percentage was respectively 71.4and 91.4 delinquent and street children.   It seems likely that financial need is an important link in between the unemployment and crime.  It is interesting to note that the major criticism of the DSM–III–R criteria for antisocial personality disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) was that personality traits or symptoms of psychopathy were neglected and that the disorder was conceptualized as synonymous with criminality. However, the criteria for the disorder in DSM–IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and also in ICD–10 (World Health Organization, 1992), reflect personality traits more than overt criminal behavior. Erratic, threatening and harsh discipline, lack of supervision and weak parent–child attachments mediate the effects of poverty and other structural factors on delinquency.

Conclusion- In this paper we found that delinquent children were more involve in substance abuse and major crime then street children’s but neurotic tendency was found in higher in street children.  

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