A STUDY OF MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN JUVENILE DELIQUENT AND
Samiksha Kaur,* Jai Singh Yadav**
* Psychologist SRLNMH Varanasi, **Assistant
Professor, Dept of Psychiatry, IMS,BHU
Introduction: There are much evidence in literature of juvenile crime and
street children, which highlights the psychosocial problem of the delinquent
like economic, family, peer, and educational factors associated with
delinquency and recidivism, and the important roles of social service and educational
systems. Besides of these factors substance abuse and mental illness are also
important factors for discussion. The purpose of this paper was to asses the
mental health and substance abuse of juveniles.
Aim: Assessment of the mental health and substance abuse of
both delinquent and street childrens. Assessment of the crime both delinquent
and street childrens.
delinquents subject and street children were taken for the study from the
observation home (Bal Sampresan Grih) Ramnagar Varanasi . The age, sex,
socioeconomic status was same. The group of was 15 to 22 years. The mean age of
subject was 18.5 years. All delinquent were male and non convicted.
Tools-Dr O N
Srivastava and Dr B.K. Bhatt Hindi adaptation scale was used. This scale was
reliable and valid. The scale was divided in to five subsection FFA,OBS, PHO,
SOM, DEP ,HYS, each subsection have 8 items. The number of item in the scale
was 48. Scoring was positive and negative warded.
subject were taken individually first, demographic details was written. Then
apply the questioner individually both in same manner.
result was show that low socioeconomic status, low education of parents and
child, low occupation, neglection, separated or single parents, death of both
parents was responsible for delinquency. And the 2nd aim result show that
delinquent children were higher involves in substance abuse then street chide.
The result of mental health questioner anxiety and depressive symptoms and
somatic concomitant were higher in street children then delinquent children.
Remind 3 subsection results like obsessive behavior, phobic attitude, and
hysterical symptoms was higher in delinquent children then street child.
The study shows that poor socioeconomic status, low education, lot of siblings
was responsible for substance abuse and mental health.
Key words - Delinquent children, Street
Children, FFA( Free Floating Anxiety), OBS(Obsessive Trait and Symptoms), PHO(Phobic
Anxiety) SOM (Somatic Concomitants) DEP(Depression)HYS(Hysterical Trait and
The whole world today is
passing through a crisis. Violence and terrorism, injustice and exploitation
are on the increase all over the world. The strong oppress the week; the rich
are unjust to the poor. This unjust and poor leaving of standard makes a man
terrorist, delinquent. Juvenile delinquency is the legal term for behavior of
children and adolescents that in adults would be judged criminal under law.
Theft is the most common offense by children; more serious property crimes and
rape are most frequently committed in later youth. The causes of such behavior,
like those of crime in general, are found in a complex of psychological,
social, and economic factors. Clinical studies have uncovered emotional
maladjustments, usually arising from disorganized family situations, in many
delinquents. Street Children are those unfortunate children who basically have
only intermittent contact with parents or family (usually mother or sisters)
but live most of the time with other street children in the city streets, or
are on the move. There are numerous reasons for a child to leave home have been
literally abandoned by their parents/relatives, found themselves on the street
from the beginning because of family problems, or have chosen to leave home due
to some kind of constant abuse. Those who have run away from home can further
be separated into two categories. Those have an unpleasant or traumatic home
environment. They experience family problems they are unable to solve: i.e.,
alcoholism, child abuse, ill treatment by stepparents, unemployment and
poverty. Criminal behaviors are highly prevalent among adolescents. The age
group of 10-20 year’s accounted for 16 percent involment in crime but 32.1
percent of all arrests, 29.8 percent of arrests for violent crime and 48.3
percent of arrests for property crime.1 many literature examining
the determinants of juvenile crime, which highlights economic, family, peer,
and educational factors associated with delinquency and recidivism.2,3
While these factors are extremely important, two factors are also important for
discussion substance abuse and mental illness in juvenile and street children.
Ellison found in his study the effectiveness of mental health and substance
abuse treatment in reducing crimes committed by juveniles.
Many studies have shown
that youth with substance abuse or mental health disorders have higher
offending rates than those without disorders.4-6 For example, Vander
Stoep et al.7 show that youth enrolled in a public mental health
system had three times as many police referrals to the juvenile justice system
as those in the general child population. Others have shown higher rates of
violence and aggression among youth with mental health problems.8,9
In a study 18,19
found strong positive relationship between substance abuse and crime in violent
and nonviolent youths. in other study violent male inmate regarding violent
crime,(beating, threatening, fight with weapons) found in local jails reports
drinking and intoxication special in marijuana increase the violence at the
time of offence then property crime inmates.20 ,24,25 study of
alcohol and marijuana use are highly correlated with increased violent
behaviors in both black and white adolescent males and violence in school.27,26
these study was found out of India. The paucity of the study we
concentrate for study. The purpose of this paper was to asses the mental health
and substance abuse of juveniles.
1-Assessment of the mental health and substance
abuse of both delinquent and street children’s.
of the crime in both delinquent and street children’s.
35 delinquents subject
and street children were taken for the study from the observation home (Bal
Sampresan Grih) Ramnagar Varanasi . The age, sex, were same. The group of was
15 to 22 years. The mean age of subject was 18.5 years. All delinquent were
male and non convicted.
Dr O N Srivastava and
Dr B.K. Bhatt Hindi adaptation scale was used. This scale was reliable and
valid. The scale was divided in to five subsection FFA,OBS, PHO, SOM, DEP
,HYS, each subsection have 8 items. The number of item in the scale was 48.
Scoring was positive and negative warded.
subject were taken
individually first, demographic details was written. Then apply the questioner
individually both in same manner.
The result was show that low
socioeconomic status, low education of parents and child, low occupation,
neglection, separated or single parents, death of both parents was responsible
for delinquency. And the 2nd aim result show that delinquent children were
higher involves in substance abuse then street children’s. The result of mental
health questioner anxiety, Phobia, depressive symptoms and somatic concomitant
were higher in street children then delinquent children. Remind 3 subsection
results like obsessive behavior, phobic attitude, and hysterical symptoms was
higher in delinquent children then street children’s. Some evidence suggests
that mental illness also promote the illegal behavior in yoths.10,11
Similarly, a number of studies have shown that juvenile were substantially
higher rates of mental health and substance abuse disorders than youth in the
general population.12-16 For example, Wasserman et al.16 found
in his study high rates of disruptive diagnoses (33 percent), substance abuse
diagnoses (50 percent), anxiety disorders (20 percent) and mood disorders (10
percent) in juvenile youths then other youth, it was only Substance abuse
disorder (11 percent) and mood disorder were found (13percent) and anxiety
disorder (25 percents)29
India is the biggest
home of street children it was estimated 18 million. 22% of the population
lives below the income poverty line. Increasing the urban rural migration, Low
family income and poor housing predict official and self-reported juvenile and
adult offending. The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood on
criminal activities indicates that the effects of impulsivity are stronger in
poorer neighborhoods than in better-off ones (Lynam et al, 2000), even quite
young children may be directly exposed to community violence (Osofsky, 1995).
Few study have been done
in the field of psychopathology and criminal behavior, the author have been
found and argued that if identify the criminal behavior early child hood and
mental disorder can be reduce the crime. William found 51.4% of male young
adult offenders had child psychiatry problem. In our study we found obsessive
behavior and anxiety is higher in delinquent children whereas street children
have higher neurotic tendency eg anxiety, somatic disorder, depression, and
phobia were found. Children were identified for offence group included /conduct
disorder /substance abuse, emotional disorder like anxiety, depression, poor
family background shown to predict criminality and violence behavior whereas
moderate offenses include arrange of poverty crime. In the Cambridge Study in
Delinquent Development, an unstable job record at the age of 18 years was also
an important predictor of young men’s convictions between the ages of 21 and 25
(Farrington, 1995). In addition, having an unskilled manual job at the age of
18 was an independent predictor of adult social dysfunction and antisocial
personality at the age of 32. Between the ages of 15 and 18, young males in
study were convicted at a higher rate when they were unemployed than when they
were employed, suggesting that unemployment is associated with crime. In our
study also supporting this view because mostly child belong to the low
socioeconomic status and the age of 18 years, these percentage was respectively
71.4and 91.4 delinquent and street children. It seems likely that financial
need is an important link in between the unemployment and crime. It is
interesting to note that the major criticism of the DSM–III–R criteria for
antisocial personality disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) was
that personality traits or symptoms of psychopathy were neglected and that the
disorder was conceptualized as synonymous with criminality. However, the
criteria for the disorder in DSM–IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994),
and also in ICD–10 (World Health Organization, 1992), reflect personality traits
more than overt criminal behavior. Erratic, threatening and harsh discipline,
lack of supervision and weak parent–child attachments mediate the effects of
poverty and other structural factors on delinquency.
Conclusion- In this paper we found
that delinquent children were more involve in substance abuse and major crime
then street children’s but neurotic tendency was found in higher in street
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