ADDICTION OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN CHILDREN: A MAJOR PROBLEM
ADDICTION OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN
CHILDREN: A MAJOR PROBLEM
Yadav J S1, Kaur
1Assistant Professor AIIMS, New Delhi, 2SRLN Hospital, Varanasi
media include the DVD/VCD, TV, computer, video game, tablet, eBook, internet/ social media. It is not always desirable
and excesses use causes various problems. The addiction of electronic media
also called problematic internet use (PIU), internet addiction disorder (IAD),
compulsive internet use (CIU) overuse internet.
Aim: To find out harmful effect on social, academic and emotional
development in children due to use of electronic media.
Methodology: Abstracts of 60 studies evaluate from pub med, out of those
33 fulfilled the selection criteria, the studies reviewed on various domain
like socio demographic data, types of electronic media, hours, influencing
factors and consequences of electronic media uses. All the studies were
formulated and data were analyzed.
Electronic media uses are common in all age, genders, socio-economic status
children but the orientations of early aged children are more towards video
games, moves and they commonly missed their school or lunch due to excessive
use, the elder children are more orientated towards social media; texting of massages, sexting, in
these group female children are more victimized than male.
and adolescents are risks of improper use of technology, lack of privacy,
sharing too much information, or posting false information. There are no
demarcations from where it will be beneficial and when will cause harm, but
whatever studies available prove that Children are more vulnerable group and
excessive use may lead to addiction which causes many social, legal, academic
and health problems.
Key Words: Addiction, Electronic Media
Any invention of science is great achievement for all over
the world but its excess use gives a lot of problem. It is fact that electronic
media (TV, DVD/CD, Video game, film, internet, smart phone) providing
information, education and entertainment. This is the positive influence one
hand and it second hand its dark side negative impact. We discuss the present
paper about negative impact of electronic media on child. Study suggested that
excessive use of these electronic objects decreases the relationship in parents
and child, poor social relation, concentration problem and increases the
aggression, ADHA, depression, anxiety. Use violent video game and picture
increase aggression and ADHD problem. Excessive use of TV, Video game, starts
the depressive symptoms. a
DSM-5 does not recognize any disorder called "Internet
addiction." it describe "Internet gaming disorder” that requires
"further study" before becoming an official diagnosis1.According
to a recent data 22% of teenagers log on to their favorite social media site
more than 10 times a day, and more than half of adolescents log on to a social
media site more than once a day. Seventy-five percent of teenagers now
own cell phones, and 25% use them for social media, 54% use them for texting, and 24% use them for instant messaging2.Recent
research indicates that there are frequent online expressions of offline
behaviors, such as bullying, clique-forming, and sexual experimentation, that
have introduced problems such as cyber bullying, privacy issues, and “sexting. In this article we have systemically reviewed the
various studies focusing on problems associated with excessive uses of
electronic media in children.
Aim To evaluate the harmful effect on social and emotional development in
children due to use of electronic media.
of 60 studies taken for review from pub med and MIDLINE search, out of
those, aim of 6 studies were not matched with our aim and full articles
of 13 abstracts were not available therefore those studies were excluded.
Finally 31 studies included, the inclusion criteria were 1) age of children
between 3-18 year 2) parent/ guardian agree to give consent 3) formal or
informal schooling 4) children exposed to electronic media of any forms minimum
1 month 5) children having no physical or mental problems. The evaluation of
socio demographic data, durations of internet exposure, type of victimization,
encouraging and preventive role of parent, physical or psychological problem in
internet exposed children done.
The mean reported daily duration of exposure to
electronic media use was 6.6 hours (SD 4.1) for the clinic sample and 4.6 hours
(SD 2.6) for the school sample (P < 0.01). Youth with externalizing
disorders expended greater time video gaming, compared with youth with internalizing
disorders3. Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as
non pathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological
gaming also showed co morbidity with attention problems4. Computer
and the Internet were connected with higher levels of aggression, anxiety.5and the television and
other electronic media negatively influence children's mental and somatic
The media have fundamentally changed the life of
children and expose them to a powerful experiment with unpredictable technology7.
The electronic media uses can lead to an increase in skills and social benefits
but there is also the potential for harm such as sexting,
cyber bullying, privacy issues, and it can affect health8. M Moreno
A study of the entire adolescent high-school
students, the sample consisted of 2017 students (51.8% boys, 48.2%
girls) parents had failed to prevent the perpetration of online
victimization in the three online activities most associated with Internet
addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming9.In another study we
found that parents like
play kids with internet due to his/her
busy schedule; 71% for mental stimulation or education, 62% contact with
friends, 58% family spend time together.10 Know we discussed about the best
selling game or likeness of child and adolescents game in 2012 it was 22.35% action, 8.3% adventure, 0.3
entertainments, 3.9% fighting, 21.2% shooting, 15.35% sport game.11,12
Cyber bullying is deliberately using digital media to
communicate false, embarrassing, or hostile information about another person.
It is the most common online risk for all teens and is a peer-to-peer risk.
Although “online harassment” is often used interchangeably with the term “cyber
bullying,” it is actually a different entity. Current data suggest that online
harassment is not as common as offline. Cyber bullying is quite common, can
occur to any young person online, and can cause profound psychosocial outcomes
including depression, anxiety, severe isolation, and, tragically, suicide13.
Defined as sending receiving or forwarding sexually explicit
messages devices. Many of these images become distributed rapidly via cell
phones or the Internet. Recent survey revealed that 20% of teens have sent or
posted nude or seminude photographs or videos of themselves. Some teens who
have engaged in sexing have been threatened or charged with felony child
pornography charges. Survey of Internet users, 33% of 10–15-year-olds reported
having experienced online harassment and 15% having received a sexual
solicitation in a 1-year period14, 15, 16.
Face book depression,” defined as depression that develops
when preteens and teens spend a great deal of time on social media sites then
begin to exhibit classic symptoms of depression. The main risk to
preadolescents and adolescents online today are risks from each other, risks of
improper use of technology, lack of privacy, sharing too much information, or
posting false information. These types of behavior put their privacy at risk.
Internet activity also can make children and teenagers easier for marketers and
fraudsters to target17.
ADHD and Media
ADHD in particular, are associated with overuse
of media and the severity of ADHD specifically correlated with the amount of
use. ADHD children may be vulnerable since these games operate in brief
segments that are not attention demanding. In addition, they offer immediate
rewards with a strong incentive to increase the reward by trying the next level.
The time spent on these games may also exacerbate ADHD symptoms.18
An ADHD “child obsessed" with electronics. He spends most his free time
watching TV and movies and playing computer games. He may have a television in
his bedroom because otherwise he "monopolizes" the family television19.
13.5% (16.5% for boys and 9.5% for girls, p<0.01). Compared to non-addictive
users, addictive Internet users were scored significantly lower on parental
relationships and significantly higher on hyperactivity-impulsivity.
Interaction analysis indicated that better parental relationship was associated
with more reductions in risk of addictive Internet use for younger students
than for older students, and with more risk of Internet addiction among higher
than among lower hyperactivity-impulsivity students20.
Media and play
Media is controlling and displaying play time such as
magazine replacing books, computer replacing broad game, outdoor massage
replacing verbal speech. About TV magic box/big window of the world. TV affected
the cognitive growth and development. It displaying the most discontinues
feature and activity of childhood play21.
Mealtime and media
Class 2nd standard children watch
mealtime TV were 60% girl and 63% boys and
in 6 the
class 72% boys 69% were girls that cause late/missing school and breakfast22.
Bed time and media
70% chidren watches
bed time TV, film, song, cartoon with or without parents and 97% film seen by
children on computer as well as on TV. Below 6th class, children like,
animation 17%, action and horror 70%. 2nd class students like
horror film 81 %. 6th class 19% girl and 18 % boy use social networking 32 %,
geographic, history, discovery net planet 0.5 %23.
Media and crime
In Meta analyses violent
videogame affect aggression, empathy, and social behavior across both eastern
and western culture. Violent seen in media increased behavior aggressively in
long term and short term.12 Children enjoy
with media and some time develops an appetite for viewing violent material.
Violence on television tends to immediate
distress and fear in children. High level of violence, hide general fearfulness
about life and desensitized to real violence24. Boys tend to be more
directly affected than girls25.
Media and physical, mental health
Social activities with parents are negatively
associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between
gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward
gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction26. Games (Violent, excessive use)
confused reality and fantasy. Video induced seizure, Obesity, postural,
muscular and skeletal disorder. Tendonitis, nerve compression, carpal tunnel
syndrome eye strain27,28,29. Depression,
Anxiety Social phobia Suicide.30
Law for children
Many parents are aware that 13 years is the minimum age for
most social media sites but do not understand why?
There are 2 major reasons.
First, 13 years is the age set by Congress in the Children's
Online Privacy Protection Act. 1998 (COPPA).31 which
prohibits Web sites from collecting information on children’s younger than 13
years without parental permission.
Second, the official terms of service for many popular sites
now mirror the COPPA regulations and stats. This is the minimum age to sign on
to sites such as Facebook and My Space.
There are many sites for preadolescents and younger children
that do not have such an age restriction, such as Disney sites, Club Penguin,
On analysis of socio
demographic data, early aged children were more user of game, animation types
of electronic media while in later age they were more liked to use face book,
chatting, taxing massages or pictures, pornography through different kind of
these changes might our due to biological, social and environmental as well as
availability of different types of media in different settings, one study we
find that 71% children use media for education, 62% contact with friends, 58%
spend time family member together in these activities and even those family
members not bother the long term consequences. In another study shown that
children are more sensitive to types of media and due to missing of school,
meal and important daily work, they can develop physical or psychological
problem. The main risk to preadolescents and adolescents online today are risks
from each other, risks of improper use of technology, lack of privacy, sharing
too much information, or posting false information. Two studies reported that
female genders were more victimized than male. Though electronic media are fast
growing technology and research are not enough to explore every aspects of each
Uses of electronic
media are more common in all age groups, gender and society, it affect
differently on physical, psychological, academic and legal area. There are no
demarcations from where it will be useful and when causes harm, but whatever
studies available prove that Children are more vulnerable group and excessive
use may lead to addiction which causes problems. However this review article
addresses further research in various other related areas, it also needs legal
policy for certain aspects. It is important that parents evaluate the sites on
which their child wishes to participate to be sure that the site is appropriate
or not for that child's age. For sites without age stipulations, however, there
is room for negotiation, and parents should evaluate the situation via active
conversation with their children.
Limitations: Studies taken for review not represents the uniform community
and culture, therefore in some community where same frequency of internet use
may consider normal than other. Though there are large populations of children
of developing countries but limited studies available. We address for multicentre studies, covering larger sample size from
different community setup.
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Privacy Protection Rule: Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Request
For Comment - Proposal To Modify Certain Proposed Definitions, 16 C.F.R. Part